Cell Biology and Disease

  • Cell Biology & Disease



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 Important Vocabulary

  • Infectious: means the disease can be passed from one person to another.    
  • Epidemiologists: Scientists who trace the spread of a disease through a population.  They do this to learn how the disease spreads and to find ways to help prevent its further spread. 
  • Carrier: This is someone who has the disease and can infect people, but does not show symptoms.  
  • Disease: a breakdown in the structure of function of a living organism.  In humans, there are many different ways that our structures and our functions can be affected.
  • Quarantine: to isolate sick people from non-sick people.
  • Germ Theory of Disease: 
    • Robert Hooke (1635 - 1703): was the first person to describe cells.
    • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1723): was the first person to describe microbes (microscopic organisms).
    • Matthias Jakob Shleiden (1804 - 1881): proposed that all plants are made of cells.
    • Theodor Schwann (1810 - 1882): said that all animals are made of cells.
    • Karl Ernst Von Siebold (1804 - 1885): Stated that microbes are made of one cell.
    • Rudolf Virchow (1821 - 1902): Cells reproduce to create new cells.
    • Ignaz Semmelweiss (1818 - 1865): hand washing reduces the spread of childbed fever among patients.
    • Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895): heating foods can kill microbes, a process known as pasteurization.  Infectious disease can be caused by microbes, which are easily spread by people.
    • Robert Koch (1843 - 1910): proved that different microbes cause different infectious disease.  He also developed agar.
    • Florence Nightingale (1820 - 1910): recognized that cleanliness was important in patient care.
    • Joseph Lister (1827 - 1912): Lister developed the use of chemicals to reduce the spread of microbes.
    • William Halsted (1852 - 1922): among the first to use gloves during surgery to prevent the spread of microbes.
  • Microbe: Microscopic single-celled organisms that you can only see under a microscope.  Some can cause disease and spread germs.

    glow germs

    *Microbes under the black light in class* 

  • Virus: Not a cell, but have genetic material surrounded by a protein coat.  Antibiotics cannot be used to kill them.  An example would be the flu virus.  
  • Bacteria: Single-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus. Antibiotics can be used to kill them.  An example of a bacterial infection would be strep throat. 
  • Protist: Most are single-celled with nucleus.  Come in a variety of shapes. Examples include: Amoeba and Paramecium.
  • Multicellular:  Made of more than one cell
  • Cell Theory: The Cell Theory is one of the basic principles of biology. Credit for the formulation of this theory is given to German scientists Theodor Schwann, Matthias Schleiden, and Rudolph Virchow.
  • Cells: is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms.
  • Amoeba: This was an example of a Protist (single-celled organism).
  • Onion Cell: This was an example of a Plant Cell.  Included a nucleus, but also a very strong cell wall (animal cells do not have this).
  • Cheek Cell: This was an example of an Animal Cell.  Included a nucleus and a cell membrane. 
  • Nucleus: Small compartment within the cell.  It is separated from the rest of the cell and is separated by the nuclear membrane.  The nucleus contains the genetic information of the cell and directs the cell's activities, including growth and reproduction. 
  • Nuclear Membrane: what separates and protects the nucleus in the cell.
  • Cell Membrane: Every cell has this and it separates it from other cells and from the environment.  
  • Cell Wall: Found only in plant cells.  Compound of hard non-living cellulose.  Located outside the cell, surrounds the cell and provides shape and structure to the plants. 
  • Organelles: or “little organs” – surrounded by their own membranes.  Some jobs:
    • Obtaining and storing energy
    • Helping move and divide the cell
    • Making substances that are transported to other parts of the body
  • Cytoplasm: The material that fills much of the inside of the cell. 
  • Immune System: The system that defends the body against foreign substances from the outside.  Your white blood cells are fighters in your immune system.  Before microbes enter your body, they must first pass through the  skin, tears, saliva, and mucus (all of which help fight off infectious disease) 
  • Resistance: able to fight against.
  • Vaccination: the act of injecting a dead or weakened form of a microbe into the body to help the body to learn how to fight it.  You can get vaccinations for viral and bacterial infections (flu vaccine and polio vaccines are examples).
  • Antibiotics: medicine (such as penicillin) that prevents the growth of or destroys microbes (anti-life).  This can ONLY be used against bacterial infections such as, strep throat. You should never take antibiotics for a viral infection, such as the flu or the common cold. 
  • Penicillin: An antibiotic that Alexander Fleming discovered. 
  • Full Course: The full prescribed amount of medicine.  You always want to take the FULL COURSE of antibiotics. 
  • Blood Cell: A, B, AB, and O type Blood. If you mix the wrong blood types, they can clot together. 


Microscope Parts and Functions

  • Arm: Connects the lenses and the stage.  It is a handle to carry the microscope as well. 
  • Base: The bottom of the microscope used for support.
  • Body Tube: Connects the objective lens to the eye piece. 
  • Coarse Adjustment Knob: Largest of the two knobs and brings the lens and the stage closer together when turned. 
  • Diaphragm: Used to vary the intensity of light that travels to the stage.
  • Eye Piece (Ocular Lens): Used to look through to examine a specimen. 
  • Fine Adjustment Knob: Used to fine-tune the focus of the observed object.
  •  Light: Located below the stage, it provides light to the specimen so it can be seen.
  • Nose Piece: The part that holds the objective lenses and can be rotated to change lens.
  • Objective Lens: Adjustable lenses (4x, 10x etc.) on the microscope that has different strengths that can be changed. 
  •  Stage: Where the object or a specimen is placed for examination
  • Stage Clips:  Used to hold the glass slide firmly on stage.
  • Finding Total Magnification: To find the magnification, take the eye piece magnification (in our case it is 10x - 10 times the size) and multiply it by the objective power.  For example:
    • 4x power = 10x X 4x = 40x (40 times the size of the original size)
    • 10x power = 10x X 10x = 100x (100 times the size of the original size)


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