- 49 ways to develop language and learning
49 Ways to Develop Language and Learning in Classrooms.
(Wayne Secord, University of Cincinnati MiamiUniversity)
1. Make language more visible...act it out.
2. Encourage participation, e.g. yes/no, repetitions, choosing and answer, short phrases, etc.
3. Rephrase directions...make students say things in different ways, "Put your finger on" becomes "Touch the".
4. Provide frequent feedback for verbalizations.
5. Accept different levels of verbal responses. Remember, participation is key.
6. Change your voice while talking.
7. Review vocabulary before a lesson, pre-teach. Use proactive rather than reactive instruction.
8. Repeat instructions. Check with students often.
9. Keep directions simple and short. Present at a slower rate.
10. Use frequent cueing techniques including; modeling the response first, a key word, carrier phrase, first sound, etc.
11. Ground language in a routine and act it out, practice the routines, use them as scaffolds.
12. Make frequent checks for comprehension. Don't assume anything with regard to understanding.
13. Use word webs, story organizers, and vocabulary classification to build word knowledge.
14. Always illicit stored knowledge and schema...remember the story about dinosaurs.
15. State when the topic is changing. Children are entrenched in routines. Avoid interruptions to their habits and thoughts.
16. Use explicit transition comments when discussing multiple ideas.
17. Teach students to listen for bits of information that signal changes in rules and routines. Agree on these ahead of time.
18. Post and review class rules, schedules, assignments, routines, etc. Use picture symbols as well as written language.
19. Make children say the instructions in their own words.
20. Follow teachable moment theory. Don't pass up an opportunity.
21. Remember the itsy-bitsy principle. Keep things small. You can do it. It comes naturally after a while.
22. Teach time management and organization. Use calendars, written time schedules, and other reminders.
23. Preview the topic of discussion or reading with focal questions that will be discussed later. Prime the pump.
24. Teach students to wait when there are multiple questions, wait, present choices, use scaffolding.
25. Take your time. All students have some special needs and require individualized instruction.
26. Examine your realistic expectations. Stop teaching to the mean.
27. Foster a sense of competence...us mistakes as learning tools. That's why we have scrapbooks.
28. Limit the number of ideas in a sentence.
29. Review daily routines often and make the implicit...explicit.
30. Use small groups for all types of activities, problem solving, discussion, brainstorming, etc.
31. Have one child provide choices for another.
32. Give adequate time for responding.
33. Use as many visuals as possible...all amplification devices you can, oversize print and multiple colors.
34. Encourage children to establish their own expectations for behavior, learning, etc. with your guidance.
35. Encourage verbal interaction between students. Language is meaning making for communication.
36. Minimize visual and auditory distractions.
37. Create a physical environment that facilitates classroom communication.
38. Provide ongoing and consistent feedback...yesterday, today and tomorrow.
39. Breakdown lessons to make them seem more manageable and praise students for small accomplishments.
40. Allow students to wrestle with complex concepts out loud. They become more manageable then.
41. Expand on sentences using correct structure.
42. Provide bridges to past and present experiences.
43. Frame responses so everyone participates.
44. Brainstorm ideas before giving assignments.
45. Encourage self-evaluation, self-monitoring and review often.
46. Tell students the what and why of assignments in advance.
47. Let children do most of the talking. Use routines to help with this.
48. Teach children how to make requests, especially requests for help.
49. Use guided and parallel questioning strategies.